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Category: Illinois

Can I Stop a Citation to Discover Assets By Filing For Bankruptcy?

Posted by Ryan Blay on May 19th, 2014 in Bankruptcy, Exemptions, Illinois, Legal, Wisconsin

Courts in all states have procedures set to allow creditors to get judgments against the debtors who owe them money.  Then there are steps to allow those creditors to find out what the debtors owe and let the creditors take anything that is not exempted (or protected).

In Wisconsin, creditors mail an Order for Financial Disclosure form to the debtors and insist on getting the form filled out and returned in about two weeks.  If they don’t receive it, they can order the debtor to appear at a hearing in front of a court commissioner.  If the debtor skips the meeting, they can be held in contempt and even jailed for not showing and answering!

In Illinois, the process is called a Citation to Discover Assets.  It involves the same steps – paperwork and sometimes a hearing where a debtor has to testify about what they owe and what they believe is protected.

This process allows creditors to take what they can and it’s hard to stop or delay.  But filing for bankruptcy can put an end to the process.  We’ve helped multiple couples and individuals recently in Illinois and Wisconsin by filing bankruptcies to propose eliminating or repaying the debt that caused the citation or financial disclosures.  By not going to these hearings, our clients can focus on their businesses or jobs and proceeding through bankruptcy to get a discharge instead of taking time off to show up and submit paperwork they’d have to give to us to prepare their bankruptcies.

Bankruptcy allows creditors to be paid or eliminated in an orderly fashion.  Citation hearings and post-judgment paperwork are meant to help judgment creditors cut to the front of the line and take money and property faster than what most people can comfortably pay. Let us talk about using bankruptcy as a way to stop these creditors and put yourself back in control of your debts.  Call Lakelaw at 847-249-9100 or 262-694-7300 in Wisconsin to set up a free consultation for a better financial future.

Chapter 13 Bankruptcy can save your house from an Illinois Tax Deed or an Illinois Tax Sale

Posted by David Leibowitz on March 4th, 2014 in Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy and Taxes, Chapter 13, Illinois, , , ,

So many of our bankruptcy clients fear losing their house to mortgage foreclosure.  We have done a good job of teaching our clients that chapter 13 bankruptcy can save your home from mortgage foreclosure. You can catch up with payments you haven’t made to your mortgage company.

In Illinois, you can lose your house even if you’ve made every one of your mortgage payments? How can this be? If you don’t pay every cent of the taxes you are obligated to pay on your house, a tax purchaser can literally pay those taxes for you. Then you must pay back the tax purchaser through the county clerk with very hefty interest charges. If you don’t do this, the tax purchase may pay taxes on your house for you for several years after that. You may not even know that this is happening. At the end, the tax purchaser has the right to be paid in full with very high interest for the taxes paid on your behalf for all those years. You might not have enough money to pay these taxes back all at once. So the tax buyer then has the right to get a deed to your house – literally stealing it from you even if you have a great deal of equity. This frequently happens to older people or people not fully conversant in English. They simply don’t understand the complicated legal papers they receive about tax sales.

This is where Lakelaw comes to your rescue. You can file chapter 13 bankruptcy to save your house. You can pay back all those taxes, maybe with substantially reduced interest, over a period of up to five years. All you have to do is to file the chapter 13 case before the property “goes to deed.”

Bankruptcy Judge Janet Baer wrote a very important decision about this issue in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of Illinois here in Chicago. These cases called Romious and Watts established the very important principal that a tax sale was more like a lien until the actual deed in favor of the tax purchaser was recorded. Because the tax sale position is so secure, the tax buyer has nothing to lose as long as the owner is making payments under the chapter 13 plan. You can find the Romius-Watts decision here:

So if you are facing a tax deed, don’t despair.  Call David Leibowitz at Lakelaw, 847 249 9100 and get the help you need immediately.

Common Bankruptcy Misconceptions

Posted by Ryan Blay on April 17th, 2013 in Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Information, Bankruptcy procedures, Chapter 13, Chapter 7, Debt Settlement, Exemptions, Illinois, Wisconsin

As an attorney who’s been practicing in consumer bankruptcy for five years now (in Illinois and Wisconsin), it’s heartbreaking and frustrating to see the huge amount of lies and misinformation about bankruptcy.

Some of these mistakes come from gossip or bad experiences in bankruptcy (including lying, bad attorneys, or other frustrations). Others come from rumors spread by the financial services industry to try to keep people out of bankruptcy (even though lenders can write off the uncollectable debt and take a tax break for it).  Even worse are errors from hacks – er, attorneys/writers – who blatantly skew statistics and facts about bankruptcy filings for their own purposes.  We can assure you that while nothing is ever certain with the law, the overwhelming majority of bankruptcies are successful, peaceful, and bring financial relief to our clients.

Here are some common statements about bankruptcy and the truth.

Statement 1:  Why not just settle debt? It’ll be better for your credit report and you won’t have to pay a lawyer to settle debts for 40-50 cents on the dollar.

Answer:  If your sole major debt is a $4,000 credit card and you can afford to pay a lump sum of $2,000, a credit card company may take it and waive the rest.  To do so, you’ll have to show you have a serious hardship (not just because you don’t feel like paying) and submit financial records to prove it.  You’ll also have to come up with a lump sum or a few significant payments, not a long term payment plan.  Unless you’re insolvent, you’ll have to pay tax on the forgiven debt.  But in the situation above, that’s fine because bankruptcy’s costs for a lawyer and the filing fees would make a bankruptcy unnecessary.  Where bankruptcy absolutely becomes necessary is if you are in the same financial situation but have $50,000 worth of credit card debt and medical bills.
Even if you get every card or hospital to settle for 10 cents on the dollar (an unrealistic goal for most clients), and even if you can avoid the tax on the 1099 for the forgiven debt, that’s still at least 2-3 times what you’d pay for a bankruptcy to discharge the debt altogether.  With so much debt, settlement is not only unrealistic, but it costs significantly more than a bankruptcy filing.  For an attorney not to disclose that is tantamount to malpractice.

2.  You cannot discharge student loans in bankruptcy.
Answer:  This is another major misstatement, largely perpetrated by student loan lenders.  In order to discharge student loans, there is a very high standard (possibly relaxed by a recent decision in the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals for Illinois/Indiana/Wisconsin) where you have to demonstrate a good faith attempt to make payments and a serious reason why it’s impossible to pay anything back.  Essentially the situation is for people who are unable to earn a significant income, will likely never have the means to do so, leaving the possibility of repayment fruitless.  That’s a high standard for sure, but it’s by no means impossible.  (Think a 60 year old disabled person with only $700 per month in social security/disability coming in, with expenses of $1000 per month and $60,000 of outstanding student loans).  With or without an attorney, people have successfully discharged significant private and government-backed student loan debt.

3.  I want to file bankruptcy, but if I do, I’ll lose my (car, boat, beagles, RV, bank account, retirement accounts, etc.)

This aggravates me this most because it assumes that the point of bankruptcy is to take everything from the debtor.  The exact opposite is true:  an honest but unfortunate debtor gets a fresh start (in Chapter 7, or a repayment plan in Chapter 13) in exchange for listing, valuing and exempting assets.  Every state has a scheme of exemptions (with some, like Wisconsin, allowing federal exemptions, while others, like Illinois, do not).  The easiest way to find out what you can maintain:  Talk to a competent bankruptcy lawyer.  Call us at Lakelaw or e-mail us. Even if we don’t practice in your jurisdiction, we can refer you to a qualified consumer attorney in another area.  You’ll be surprised, but typically 90% of Chapter 7 cases or so are no-asset  7 cases where the filing debtor turns over nothing.

The moral of this story:  Speak with an attorney and learn the truth before believing what people write and say to scare people away from bankruptcy.  It may not be for everyone, but for most debtors, it’s a huge relief and worthwhile decision.


What happens if I can’t file another Chapter 7 Bankruptcy right now?

Posted by Ryan Blay on January 16th, 2013 in Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Information, Bankruptcy procedures, BAPCPA, Chapter 7, Illinois, Wisconsin

I like to offer free initial consultations because I believe it’s only fair to know what your options are before paying for legal representation.  I meet with many people who would benefit from Chapter 7 Bankruptcy relief.  The only problem is that they are not eligible to file and get a discharge because they filed in late 2005, or 2006, or later.

The rules are very clear and simple:  Measured from the date the prior bankruptcy was filed (not converted), a debtor must wait 8 years before filing another Chapter 7 bankruptcy and receiving a discharge.

Sure, there are other options available in the meantime – debt consolidation programs, Chapter 13 Bankrupty plans, Chapter 128.21 Debt Amortizations (for Wisconsin residents).  These all require a steady income with disposable money to pay creditors.  In this economy, not everyone has that.

My two cents:  Meet with me (or another well-trained bankruptcy attorney) and look over your finances.  If you make so little money you can’t be garnished, you may simply want to wait to file.  If a small Chapter 13 plan payment is possible, that might work as well, but you should never file a Chapter 13 plan unless you know in good faith you can make it work.  It’s simply too much time for you, an attorney, the court and trustee, not to mention money and a toll on the system.  Also, you should never try to file a Chapter 13  bankruptcy and plan without an attorney – I was in court recently when a judge told a pro se debtor that she wouldn’t even file a bankruptcy without an attorney!

Still, there may be options available.  Call us or e-mail us to discuss.

What is the Rooker-Feldman Doctrine and How Does it Apply to Bankruptcy?

Posted by Ryan Blay on January 11th, 2013 in Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Information, Illinois, Legal, Wisconsin

Most rulings come from state courts, not from federal courts.  State courts hear all sorts of claims, from criminal claims to civil claims to foreclosures in “equity”.

We don’t always like the outcomes, and occasionally judges do make errors in their rulings or rule based on information that later turns out to be wrong.  So what can we do in Bankruptcy Court about it?

The Rooker-Feldman doctrine, based on two Supreme Court cases, says federal court s (like bankruptcy courts) can’t sit as appellate courts for state court decisions we don’t like.  If a trial court judge in the Circuit Court of Ozaukee County, Wisconsin rules against a client and says a foreclosure is proper, we can’t appeal that decision in Bankruptcy Court.  It’s a final order and would have to be appealed in state court.

This is very important because many people look to not only file for bankruptcy, but also to ask the judge to avoid a mortgage or cancel a judgment that could turn into a non-dischargeable debt.  In many cases, these decisions come when clients, who can’t afford to hire lawyers to investigate and defend them adequately, are held in default or easily lose in summary judgment.

This is why the first level is so important and why, if the client wants to fight their case in Bankruptcy Court, lawyers must make sure there isn’t a final judgment to try and set aside.

The moral of the story:  Fight early or else you might not get to fight at all.

Late Filed Claims in Chapter 13 – What Happens to Them?

Posted by Ryan Blay on December 13th, 2012 in Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Information, Chapter 13, Illinois, Wisconsin

Suppose you file a Chapter 13 Bankruptcy and list all of the creditors you can think of.  All is well and good and the judges confirms (approves and signs) the plan to pay the creditors.  But little did you know that there was one creditor that was lurking out there, or that was assigned a debt and never received notice of the bankruptcy.  They didn’t file a proof of claim before the deadline (usually around 120 days from filing).  What happens to them?

Well it depends on where you file.  In Illinois, the case of In Re Wright suggests that the creditor is out of luck and can’t file a claim.  That means they don’t get paid through the bankruptcy.  However, that also means that the debt you owe to them doesn’t get discharged.  That’s harsh to both the creditor (who could get paid something, and faster) and the debtor (who wants to discharge the debt, especially if it’s a low payment plan to the creditors!)

One of our Wisconsin judges, Judge Kelley, issued a ruling in a case called In re Washington in which she followed prior law from the Western District of Wisconsin.  In her decision, she held that in the following conditions, the proof of claim should be allowed:

“In this case, it is apparent that (1) the Creditor did not receive notice of the Chapter 13 case until after the claims bar date expired; (2) upon learning of the case, the Creditor promptly filed a proof of claim; and (3) the prejudice to the Creditor of disallowing the claim outweighs the prejudice to the other creditors of allowing the claim.”

Unlike Chapter 7, where a failure to list a creditor may not prevent a discharge, Chapter 13 requires notice to creditors and has deadlines.  Therefore, if you know of a debt you forgot to list, tell your lawyer and give the creditor notice as quickly as possible to file a claim!

Upcoming CLE Event, Advanced Asset Protection Planning

Posted by David Leibowitz on December 6th, 2012 in Bankruptcy Information, Illinois

I am pleased to announce the upcoming CLE event, Advanced Asset Protection Planning produced by the Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education (IICLE®). As you may be aware, I will also be serving as a faculty member for this program on February 1, 2013, presenting the session, Breaking the Lock: Accessing Protected Assets. Enclosed please find a flyer with more information about this event.

The Illinois Institute for Continuing Legal Education is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization dedicated to supporting the professional development of Illinois attorneys through Illinois-focused practice guidance. My work on this project is on a volunteer basis. If you would like to learn about volunteer opportunities at IICLE® please visit:

I would greatly appreciate it if you would share this announcement with your colleagues, and I would be honored if you would consider attending the program. If you have any questions about the event, please contact IICLE® Customer Service at 800-252-8062 or


David P. Leibowitz

Updates on the ResCap/GMAC Mortgage Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Filing

Posted by Ryan Blay on July 17th, 2012 in Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Information, Chapter 11, Chapter 13, Chapter 7, Illinois, Real Estate, Wisconsin

When Residential Capital LLC (or “ResCap”) filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy relief a few months ago, it left a lot of bankruptcy attorneys confused.  Because GMAC held many debts, including a substantial number of mortgages, the company was the subject of a large number of bankruptcy lawsuits or “adversaries”.  The company would file proofs of claim in Chapter 11, 12 and 13 cases and debtors would try to remove their mortgages through “lien-stripping”.  But because of the automatic stay in bankruptcy, lawyers didn’t know how far they could go with these actions.

Fortunately, the National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys negotiated with the attorneys for ResCap and the Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Judge in New York signed an order allowing limited relief, including the right to object to a proof of claim or file a lien stripping action or other adversary.

Now this doesn’t mean that we can file actions in the Chapter 11 or get involved in the reorganization process, but it means that our day to day work representing borrowers in bankruptcy has become a little easier, thanks to NACBA’s work.

A Follow-Up on Legal Helpers Debt Resolution – More Problems For the Company?

Posted by Ryan Blay on July 11th, 2012 in Debt Settlement, Illinois

Every state has a regulatory body that oversees regulation and registration for lawyers.  For Illinois, that body is the Illinois Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission, or ARDC.  In June, the ARDC filed a complaint against the principal attorneys, Thomas Macey and Jeffrey Aleman. The complaint alleges that the attorneys breached a fiduciary duty, failed to consult with clients, assisted non-lawyers in the practice of law, and commited other acts that breached Illinois professional duties.

At least 36 individuals paid them anywhere from $150 to  $2258 to assist with debt resolution.  Guess what?  They weren’t happy with the results.

There are other solutions out there to resolve debts in an appropriate way, in Illinois and elsewhere.  For an ethical consultation with our Illinois attorneys about debts and options in addressing them, please contact Lakelaw at (847) 249-9100.

Will Health Care Reform Mean Fewer Bankruptcy Filings?

Posted by Ryan Blay on July 2nd, 2012 in Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Information, Illinois, Wisconsin

As you probably heard, last Thursday the Supreme Court ruled on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, otherwise known as “Obamacare”.  The court found the Act to be constitutional.  This decision means that should the Act stay in place, over the next few years many new changes will be enacted in an attempt to provide affordable healthcare to every American and to reform the healthcare insurance industry.  Politics aside, many questions remain about exactly how this Act will affect the country.  Specifically, we at Lakelaw are wondering what the effect of PPACA will be on bankruptcy.

At first glance you might not think that a bill about healthcare would have much to do with bankruptcy, but in the U.S. today a large percentage of bankruptcies filed are “medical bankruptcies.”  Medical bankruptcies are bankruptcies which are largely the result of expenses like hospital or doctor’s bills or the cost of prescriptions.  Such medical costs can be financially devastating for almost any family.

Enter Obamacare.  Supporters argue that PPACA will greatly decrease the number of medical bankruptcy filings because those who previously did not have insurance will now be covered, greatly reducing the amount of out-of-pocket medical expenses for the family should medical problems arise.  Additionally, in the long run PPACA should lower the cost of healthcare overall, which would reduce medical costs for everyone.  This could help ease the burden that so many families face when they are hit with unexpected medical costs.

On the other hand, critics of the Act point out that the majority of those who file for “medical” bankruptcy” already had health insurance when their medical difficulties began.  In addition, PPACA does not eliminate all co-pays or other out-of-pocket medical costs, so some medical expenses would remain.  Finally, they argue, Massachusetts’s recently reformed healthcare system, which PPACA was modeled after, has not been shown to have significantly lowered the number of medical bankruptcies in that state. 

Both arguments have merit and certainly the results of PPACA remain to be seen.  We at Lakelaw simply hope that as many families as possible are able to achieve solid financial footing.  If you are considering bankruptcy as a route for moving forward financially, especially to deal with medical debt, please contact us to discuss your options.

This post was authored by Lakelaw summer intern Tatiana Barry


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